Academic Articles for Telehealth Effectiveness – General Practitioners

International Studies


Comparative effectiveness of telemedicine strategies on type 2 diabetes management: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

This 2017 systematic review and network meta-analysis from Australian, Malaysian, and Thai authors, compared the effectiveness of telemedicine strategies on type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes. It found teleconsultation was the most effective telemedicine strategy in reducing HbA1c levels significantly, compared to usual care.


A 2016 American systematic review supported the overall effectiveness of telehealth for primary care, stating it is at least equal to face-to-face sessions and increasingly demonstrates to be cost-effective.


• Does telemedicine improve treatment outcomes for diabetes? A meta- analysis of results from 55 randomized controlled trials

American meta-analysis from 2016 found “compared to conventional care, telemedicine is more effective in improving treatment outcomes for diabetes patients, especially for those with type 2 diabetes.’


• Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial in an outpatient clinic

A 2015 Danish randomized controlled trial in an outpatient clinic directly compared home video consultations to standard outpatient therapy for type 2 diabetes. The study found telemedicine was a safe and accessible option, with favorable outcomes in HBA1c, mean blood glucose, and cholesterol levels after six months of treatment.


• Telemedicine and telecare for older patients--a systematic review
A German systematic review from 2012 found telemedicine improved behavioral endpoints such as adherence to diet, medication, and exercise for an older population.


• A patient-centric, provider-assisted diabetes telehealth self-management intervention for urban minorities

This 2011 American randomized controlled trial studying African Americans living with type 2 diabetes found “the online diabetes self-management portal complemented by biweekly virtual visits with a nurse enabled 26 African Americans with diabetes to improve their health outcomes and assume more responsibility for their health.”


• Using telehealth to provide diabetes care to patients in rural Montana: findings from the promoting realistic individual self-management program

An American feasibility trial from 2011 evaluated the use of telehealth via video visits to provide interdisciplinary diabetes care to a rural population. The trial found “telehealth to be an effective mode for the provision of diabetes care to rural patients. Few differences were detected in the delivery of a team approach to diabetes management via telehealth compared with face-to-face visits on receipt of preventive care services, vascular risk factor control, patient satisfaction, and patient self-management.”


• A randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes mellitus: 5 Year Results of the IDEATel Study

This 2009 American randomized controlled trial compared telemedicine case management to usual care of underserved diabetic patients 55 years or older. The trial resulted in net improvements in HgbA1c, LDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure levels over five years.


Australian Studies


• Using telehealth to support end of life care in the community: a feasibility study

An Australian prospective cohort study from 2016 of video calls for palliative care patients found staff (inclusive of GPs) “reported video calls were similar (22.3%) or better/much better (65.2%) than phone calls and similar (63.1%) or better/much better (27.1%) than face-to-face.”


• Telehealth services in rural and remote Australia: a systematic review of models of care and factors influencing success and sustainability

This 2016 Australian systematic review of models of care and factors influencing success and sustainability of telehealth services in rural and remote Australia identified telehealth’s potential to address Australia’s key health provision challenges.


• Barriers for delivering telehealth in rural Australia: a review based on Australian trials and studies

An Australian review from 2014 discussed the barriers for delivering telehealth in rural Australia and how recent technological advancements have a great potential to overcome many of the identified barriers.


• Telehealth: the general practice perspective
A 2014 perspective piece discussed the practical issues, challenges, and opportunities related to running a GP telehealth video conferencing service, including a use case of one practice’s experience delivering telehealth videoconferencing.


• A satisfaction study of general practitioners, and community mental health workers in rural and remote areas with the use of telemedicine for managing their psychiatric patients

This Australasian study from 2009 showed high satisfaction ratings by GP’s using telehealth for psychiatric patient management in rural and remote areas.

Academic evidence